Cambridge, U.K., 1979. No single denomination predominates, with mainstream Protestant churches, Pentecostal churches, African initiated churches, and the Catholic Church all having significant numbers of adherents. Not least of the problems is the difficulty in deciding where religion ends and politics begins. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/politics-and-religion-politics-and-african-religious-traditions, African Religions: New Religious Movements, Communication of Ideas: Africa and its Influence. Overall, it is more analytically satisfactory to perceive such movements as involving a combination of motivations that often defy easy or precise pigeonholing. Ranger, Terence. London, 1985. Dijk, Rijk van. Lapidus, Ira. The few territories that did not undergo entrenched and formal foreign control (Liberia, Ethiopia, and several others) nevertheless absorbed European-led modernizing influences almost as though they had. In Southern Africa, however, the transfer of power to an African majority was greatly complicated by the presence of entrenched white settlers. On 17 August 2016, an article titled, “The Damning Effects Of Religion In Africa,” written by Kofi Asamoah Okyere was published on Modernghana.com in which the writer sought to establish a case that religion impeded the development of Africa.. 4 (1997): 709–728. . In The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. The Constitution of South Africa allows for freedom of religion, indeed, the freedom of all religions in South Africa. 191–222. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Other Muslim groups adopted armed struggle against the Europeans, especially during the period from the 1880s to 1914, when they were soundly defeated by the superiority of the Europeans' military technology. As true as the general notion of cultism might be, most rooted African secret cults started off as a … Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Such fundamentalist interpretations of Islam are of particular political importance in Sudan (where it is the ruling ideology) and in parts of northern Nigeria, where conflict (with thousands of deaths since the late 1990s) between Muslims and Christians has long been an important politico-religious issue. South Africa has a population of approximately 55 million people comprising of diverse culture, religion, origin, and languages. Walshe, Peter. The main analytical problem involving an understanding of the relation between religion and politics in Africa is the region's astonishing multifariousness of religious beliefs, ethnic divisions, cultural distinctions, and political modes. A History of African Christianity, 1950–75. Ṣūfī Islam—the faith of many African Muslims—is actually a frequent target for Islamic fundamentalists found within the ʿulamāʾ and their secular allies because it is regarded as a primitive or degraded form of Islam that must be reformed or purified. Chicago, 1993. Also, in this section is a strength, weakness, opportunities, threats (SWOT), analysis for Cardinal health in … However, other religions are protected by the constitution. ." In South Africa no law is attached to religion, everyone has the right to practice what he or she beliefs. Christian 86%, ancestral, tribal, animist, or other traditional African religions 5.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other 1.5%, nothing in particular 5.2% (2015 est.) Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Encyclopedia.com. Lan, David. This is a case study of neotraditional religion's political involvement in Rhodesia and Zimbabwe. "Religion, Secularization and Politics: A Postmodern Conspectus." Examples in this regard include recent political developments in both Nigeria and Sudan, where interreligious conflict—in both cases between Muslims and non-Muslims—reflects an array of both spiritual and material concerns that interact within very fluid boundaries. Benefits of Religion. Oliver, Ronald. A comprehensive discussion of religious fundamentalisms, including a focus on Africa. Especially around the time of World War I, many European colonial administrations were worried that both Germany and the Turkish Ottoman Empire were in tandem politically, seeking out and cultivating African Muslim leaders to be allies in their strategic rivalries with Britain and France. Frequently, senior Christian figures were instrumental in the clamor for political and economic changes—for example, in South Africa, Kenya, and various francophone West African countries. A Holistic Approach to Teaching Islam to Children: A Case Study in Northern Nigeria, B. Aisha Lemu 33 – 38 7. . Studies have shown that religious practice: Decreases crime Stabilizes society Improves family relationships (Fagan "Why Religion Matters Even") Religion decreases Crime Religious involvement decreases crime. Theologians are interested primarily in understanding the nature of its individual or collective spiritual significance. In the post-Apartheid period, there is a record increase in the practice of AIR in South Africa. In the postcolonial period, African political leaders have generally accorded a high level of respect to leaders of the main religious institutions, both Christian and Muslim. Third World Quarterly 18, no. . African Affairs 93, no. Encyclopedia of Religion. Haynes, Jeff. In Fundamentalism and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, edited by Michael Marty and R. Scott Appleby, pp. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. 22 Dec. 2020 . Afriques Indociles. "Some Recent Developments in African Christianity." In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Mbembe, Achille. It creates a sense of security and order in the community. Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiculturalism with Examples. Christianity and Islam are leading religious traditions—each has in excess of 250 million followers in Africa. SUNNI MUSLIM 50 percent Rulers were not only political heads but also religious leaders whose well-being was closely linked to their people's health and welfare. To ascertain the nature of the contemporary relation between religion and politics in Africa, it is necessary to take into account the im… In conclusion, the multi-colored nation of South Africa is said to support Christianity as the primary belief system. Politics and Religion: Politics and African Religious Traditions African Affairs 85 no. However, sometimes after serious opposition (e.g., in the West African empire of El Hadj Oumar against the French, the Hausa-Fulani empire against the British, and in much of Muslim Somalia prior to World War I) Muslim leaders were generally pragmatic enough to reach a modus vivendi with the colonial authorities. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Africans often used their religious beliefs as a means to adjust the relationship between themselves and colonial authorities in their favor (as far as possible). London, 1991. Religion and the State: Europe Outlines the interaction of religion and politics in Africa from colonial to the turn of the twenty-first century. Orthodox conceptions of Islam—nearly always Sunnī in Africa—are the province of the religious elite, the ʿulamāʾ (religio-legal scholars). In summary, the main benefits of religion include Traces the variable responses of Christian missionaries to temporal power in Africa during colonial times. Reactions in many African countries not only to failed modernization but also to ideas such as democracy spread by globalization were often focused in vociferous demands for incumbent governments to resign. As a result, a partnership with state-level politicians is of crucial importance. In each area, not only is religious and political power typically fused in the hands of a few individuals, but, over time, class structures developed based on extant religious differentiation. London, 1996. For example, during the colonial period, religious movements were often simultaneously anticolonial political movements and fundamentally concerned with both sociocultural and religio-spiritual reform. Thus, in Africa, Islam is a multifaceted term covering a number of Muslim interpretations of the faith. Followers believe in the guidance of their ancestors spirits. Such demands were later focused by professional politicians as integral parts of political programs. demobilisation of religious forces and of the religious discourse in politics. For South Africa to be the strongest African economy and attenting positions such as being a member of the g8 as been a clearl work of globalization making it at the center of the Africa. Chicago, 1993. ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN (TEWAHDO) 40 I believe that with the advent of Christianity in parts of Africa, there has been a huge change is the amount of superstition. Religion has been a feature of the world for as long as it came into existence. Multiculturalism is the peaceful coexistence of a culturally diverse or multiethnic population in a country. It is noteworthy that a particular form of transnational Islam, or pan-Islamism, was of great concern for colonial rulers in the early years of the twentieth century. The simple answer is that in the 1950s and 1960s senior Christian leaders in Africa were almost always Europeans. "Politics and Religion: Politics and African Religious Traditions 110–151. For their part, African religious leaders appealed to the Chinese delegation to improve the treatment of Christians in China. Africa 51, no. Religion plays a fundamental role in our culture. Comparative examination of the political role of Islam in three countries. London, 2003. Journal of Modern African Studies 29, no. (December 22, 2020). Whether through the founding of independent churches or via Africanized modes of Islam, religious leaders sought to create and develop socially and communally relevant and popular religious organizations. Dr Bompani is also the programme director of the masters in Africa and International Development. The many other dimensions and impacts of religion tend to be downplayed or even neglected entirely. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. Generally, religion relates to politics in Africa in ways that are themselves linked to the particular historical and developmental trajectories of individual societies, whether traditional or modern. For many Khoisan peoples, the sun and the moon were gods, or aspects of a supreme deity. When exploring options as a long-term couple, many wonder whether they should tie the knot legally, and what the advantages and disadvantages of doing so are. In addition, many ethnic groups, especially in West and East Africa, converted historically to Islam en masse, some of whom are also members of Ṣūfī brotherhoods, so these Ṣūfī groups may also have an ethnic dimension. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. In other words, such religious organizations functioned as statements of social, political, and economic interaction as well as important foci of community aims and strategy. In Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Politics, Economics and Militance, edited by Michael Marty and R. Scott Appleby, pp. Surveys the contemporary spiritual positions and sociopolitical thrust of popular religion in Africa. not well thought of by White people in South Africa; however, despite the condemnation, AIR continues to be practiced even in the present. 1 (1992): 27–60. :᳒fz!© ìm&£]£ Üèµg©qI¦YîW¥Â±°@@ј_QuŽ‰F°¾ÎeK#›ʬÊPÞïŠ|g0ökVEN6µ7ÓòŠžOŒØ²#þH»³Ë3»†€œåt þ*‹÷Í.kÔ29Gi)ÓÛéE9#›c-þ:{Qo/"X1E&÷vƒPvv9 ËÝب,ÑÞrpÄڞJPªé•…%Õ¢ÐÞ. The African Experience. Princeton, N.J., 1985. Religion increases an individual’s level of happiness. During the 1960s and 1970s, mainline Christian churches swiftly Africanized, with control shifting from Europeans to Africans. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Politics and Religion: Politics and African Religious Traditions. Journal of Religion in Africa 17, no. In 1963 the leaders of thirty-two newly independent African states gathered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to establis…, Socialism, African Religion annually contributes about $1.2 trillion dollars of socio-economic value to the United States economy, according to a 2016 study by the Religious Freedom & Business Foundation. "Understanding Alice: Uganda's Holy Spirit Movement in Context." The contribution that religion can make to peacemaking--as the flip side of religious conflict--is only beginning to be explored and explicated. 321–375. In addition, many believe that religious worship, or involvement with religious organizations, is an important means to try to improve their current earthly positions. The wide variety of religions in South Africa is a reflection of the cultural diversity in South Africa's "Rainbow" society. However, the political institutions both countries created in Africa during colonialism were little, if anything, more than naked instruments of domination. In South Africa. Definition: This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and … Cambridge, U.K., 1988. Later, in the 1980s and 1990s, leaders of mainline African Christian churches were significantly involved in demands for democracy. Neither can any religion in the country claim any theocratic advantages from the state and the courts. There are two basic models of African socialism that represent its variations and development on the continent (Rosberg and Callag…, Neocolonialism can be defined as the continuation of the economic model of colonialism after a colonized territory has achieved formal political inde…, POPULATION 4,465,651 Finally, in a number of African states, Muslims, fragmented by ethnic and regional concerns, are politically marginalized into a minority bloc, as in, for example, Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo. arrive at a more authentic reflection on African religion. Gifford, Paul. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Yet because various Christian churches (Roman Catholic, as well as a variety of Protestant denominations) were in direct competition for converts, there was rivalry between them. Yet religious interaction between ordinary Africans and the colonial authorities was by no means a straightforward relationship between dominance and dependence. There is no established religion which has certain advantages before the law of the land. It is important to note that the role of mission Christianity as an institutional force during the colonial period was not simply one of undifferentiated support of temporal political power. The African traditional religion or voodoo has helped us a lot especially in shaping our moral standards and giving us a sense of identity. Fields, Karen. Of the total national population of 44.8 million, 35.8 millio… percent EASTERN CATHOLIC (EASTERN RITE) AND ROMAN CATHOLIC 5.5 percent Many Muslims oppose Western interpretations of democracy, in which sovereignty is said to reside with the people because it is seen as a secularized system negating God's own sovereignty. As a result, the notion of politics not only involves general relations of power but also relates to the workings of formal political institutions (e.g., legislatures, executives, presidents), as well as focusing attention more generally on issues of authority, legitimacy, power, and equity. Historical account of the development of Islam in Africa during the first four decades of the twentieth century, as the faith came into competition with Christianity. Sociologists seek to identify and examine religion's general and specific social imports in the countries of the region. People were afraid to cheat on other people. One of its key impacts was—theoretically, officially, and ostensibly—to divide Africa's religious world from its secular and, hence, political sphere. Clearly, most Africans would regard themselves as religious people, believing in a God (or gods) who looks over them and helps guide what they do. The consequences of the colonial period for the relation between religion and politics in Africa were profound. Because most mainstream expressions of both Christianity and Islam tended to be unidentified with the main interest groups, whether ethnic or class, their leaders stood on relatively neutral ground and thus could serve as a mediating element when social or political conflict occurred. Before the arrival of Christianity, Islam and the other foreign religions, people were afraid to take other people's wives. Some ethnic groups are unique to South Africa while others like Basotho crossed the border into the country. Christianisme, Pouvoir et Etat en Societé Postcoloniale. In short, Africa's recent democratization was linked to the individual and collective efforts of many Christian leaders and was a testimony to their tenacity, clear-sightedness, and lack of fear of the consequences of their actions in leading popular protests. An Appraisal of Reinhard Bonnke's Pan-African Crusade." Three issues contextualize a contemporary discussion of the political role of Islam in Africa. Africa South of the Sahara. Locates the role of religion in Africans' anticolonial struggles. Within Western social sciences, theoretical dividing lines between politics and other social actions are relatively clear cut. Hastings, Adrian. Cambridge, U.K., 1986. Source: pixabay.com globalization has a great impact in South Africa in the sense that there are over 80% of protestant Christians but are mainly independent churches. A discussion of the infiltration of foreign fundamentalist churches in contemporary Africa, with particular emphasis on the pastor Reinhard Bonnke. However, they were also purveyors of modernization, especially Western education, the acquisition of which was quickly noted by many Christian Africans as the key route to advancement in colonial society. Social dynamics in Africa may best be viewed as an entwined triple-stranded helix of state, class, and ethnicity. Such differing assessments of the nature of religion in Africa suggest that it would be most constructive to note its combined spiritual and material dimensions. A comprehensive account of the development of religio-political anticolonial movements in colonial Central Africa. A History of Islamic Societies. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted religion in various ways, including the cancellation of the worship services of various faiths and the closure of Sunday schools, as well as the cancellation of pilgrimages, ceremonies and festivals. As such, in looking at Africa's colonial period it is difficult to be clear whether individual religious, political, or social objectives—or a mixture of all three—were paramount when seeking to account for the motivations of certain groups and organizations. The hope was that following democratization elected leaders would tackle—with energy, resourcefulness, and imagination—the pressing economic, political, and social problems of the continent. Many were highly respected figures whose own personal desires and preferences were believed to be subsumed by their concern to mediate disinterestedly between followers and the state. Regarding the relation between Islam and temporal power in contemporary Africa, it is often suggested that Muslims are less concerned with or interested in democracy than are many Christians. Paris, 1988. Africa 61, no. In traditional (i.e., precolonial) African societies, the relationship between religion and politics was always a close one, for religious beliefs and practices underpinned political power, while political concerns permeated to the heart of the religious sphere. The African Traditional Religion (ATR) is typically a system of worship deeply rooted in the reverence of a supreme being, divinities and deities, and ancestors as well. Birai, U. M. "Islamic Tajdid and the Political Process in Nigeria." Traces the emergence of popular religion in Africa and outlines its socio-political roles. Leeuw (2004:20-36) goes further and states that African religion is a misnomer, because the ideas behind actions of ritual and rite relate to African thought and not to religion — a concept not even accommodated originally in African languages. Guns and Rain. In short, class, racial, and institutional bonds bound Christian leaders to the colonial regimes. Colonial administrations attempted to employ religion as a tactic in their pursuit of political domination. This involves both personal belief systems as well as group ideologies, which together help to motivate individuals and groups to behave in a variety of ways. Mayer, Anne. Concerns were exacerbated by years of popular frustration and disappointment, for the promises of independence had turned out, almost everywhere, to be hollow. Nearly all South Africans will tell you that they belong to a church and practice a faith, although their thinking when it comes to religion and religious beliefs differ widely. In addition, throughout much of Africa, Muslims had to coexist with and be bound by European power, as they were ultimately under the latter's control. 4 (1994): 513–34. Religions of every denomination add $418 billion annually to the American economy. Outlines the development of Islam in Africa from precolonial to present times. The metaphor of the triple strand is useful in understanding the political and social role of religion in Africa, with the three strands of the helix comprising religion, ethnicity, and politics. They had both repressive and liberating functions as agents of European superiority and political domination. Such disciplinary divisions between, for example, political science, sociology, and economics frequently lead to assumptions that a complex reality can be neatly compartmentalized. An account of the emergence and development of a politicized religious movement in contemporary Uganda. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Encyclopedia.com. The second factor is that Islamic fundamentalism is rare, although not unknown, in tropical Africa. African Traditional Religion. Why was this? 7, From 1905 to 1940, edited by A. Roberts, pp. Peasant Consciousness and Guerrilla War in Zimbabwe. There are spiritual leaders, kinds of priests or pastors in most traditional African religions. First, they shared racial bonds with colonial administrators. Consequently, it is appropriate to regard the nature and characteristics of religion's role in politics in contemporary Africa as a result of the multiple changes occasioned by European colonialism. 4 (1986): 49–54. As a result, the various traditional religious activities had to function within the Europeans' legal jurisdiction. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. This development reflected a reawakening of civil society's political voice, with trade union officials, higher-education students, businesspeople, civil servants, and, in many African countries, Christian leaders coordinating and leading protest efforts. Both Islam and Christianity were imported into Africa in the historical past. Exceptional private healthcare. Such religious organizations tended to function well during the colonial period because they served as appropriate focal points for ordinary people's attempts to come to terms with and to adapt to the forces of change (summarized as modernization), that were a result of the intrusion of European rule. When Islam appeared as a key threat to Christian dominance and well-being, steps were taken to try to undermine its attraction by offering Western education to putative converts. Multiple Voices: Challenges Posed for Religion Education in South Africa, David Chidester 28 - 32 6. Gifford, Paul. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Of their ancestors spirits Remaking Politics, and copy the text into your bibliography or works cited.! White settlers Ng & Wenko Chan 39 - 42 8 the sun and the moon were gods, aspects... Comes with its impact without compromising Islamic ideals claim any theocratic advantages from state... Later, in tropical Africa Christians in China of 250 million followers in Africa ’ in Taiwan, Shu-Sum &! Syncretism with African traditional religion, advantages and Disadvantages of Multiculturalism with Examples group. 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