A recently systematic review analyzed the positives and negatives of behavioral counseling for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults without known cardiovascular risk factors. Changes in HDL-c concentrations after 16 weeks of combined training in postmenopausal women: characteristics of positive and negative responders. However, when comparing the effect of different high-intensity training programs, Panissa et al. 1:2. FL also thanks National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) for their support (305263/2015-3 and 444365/2014-1). 2016. Trans fatty Acids are responsible for lowering HDL-c levels in humans. (1) The liver synthesizes Apo A-1 that enters the bloodstream. Metab. (2015). Subsequently, there are two ways where cholesterol is delivered to the liver: direct and indirect. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1996.81.4.1484. Importance of exercise immunology in health promotion. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and transfer of lipids to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in vegan and omnivore subjects. (2016). Lipoprotein apoprotein metabolismo. Lipidol. (2010). Endocrinol. 8, 226–239. Years later, Khabazian et al. doi: 10.1093/jn/128.2.439S, Oscai, L. B., Caruso, R. A., and Wegeles, A. C. (1982). Cardiol. Thorning et al. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601628, Xu, S., Liu, Z., and Liu, P. (2013). Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on blood lipids in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized controlled trial. Potential anti-atherosclerotic properties of astaxanthin. Atherosclerosis 228, 413–420. (2008) aimed to investigate the effects of low-intensity chronic aerobic exercise in the modulation of lipid metabolism and performance of gene transcription variables (PPAR-γ e LXRα) responsible for controlling RCT in the liver. Interestingly, recent studies have indicated that sialic acids have antioxidant activities [4–6], and exogenous NANA could be employed as a therapeutic option in some diseases. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0294, Durstine, J. L., Grandjean, P. W., Cox, C. A., and Thompson, P. D. (2002). HDL is believed to play a key role in the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), in which it promotes the efflux of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and returns it to the liver for biliary excretion. Efflux of lipids (cholesterol and phospholipids) is the first step in reverse cholesterol transport. Lipids and proteins composing plasma lipoproteins present different proportions, varying in size and density (Olson, 1998; Benoit et al., 2011; Feingold and Grunfeld, 2015). The increase in serum HDL concentration promoted by flavanols is still controversial (Tas et al., 2005; Baba et al., 2007). Am. 89, 472–480. Mechanistic studies in mice revealed that, activation of the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor increases cholesterol removal via the transintestinal cholesterol excretion pathway as well as decreases plasma cholesterol and triglyceride providing an interesting target … doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.266502, Weggemans, R. M., and Trautwein, E. A. Metab. Am. Rep. 13, 453–460. Nutr. Gordon, D. J., Probstfield, J. L., Garrison, R. J., Neaton, J. D., Castelli, W. P., Knoke, J. D., et al. Free cholesterol is removed from tissues by plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and transported to the liver, where it is eliminated from the body either unchanged or after conversion to bile acids in the process known as reverse cholesterol transport . doi: 10.5681/bi.2012.005, Hellsten, Y., Apple, F., and Sjödin, B. Diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), are protective against CVD and increase cholesterol efflux and RCT. doi: 10.1038/ncpendmet0397, Ghanbari-Niaki, A., Ghanbari-Abarghooi, S., Rahbarizadeh, F., Zare-Kookandeh, N., Gholizadeh, M., Roudbari, F., et al. Food Sci Nutr. Res. Treadmill exercise enhances ABCA1 expression in rat liver. We used the following keywords in English: physical exercise; aerobic exercise; strength exercise; nutritional approaches; supplements; lipoprotein; low density lipoprotein; high density lipoproteins, and lipoprotein metabolism. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled trial. doi: 10.3390/md14020035. doi: 10.1172/JCI30163, Repa, J. J., Turley, S. D., Lobaccaro, J. M., Medina, J., Li, L., Lustig, K., et al. Hyperlipidaemia is one of the major risk factors for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is believed to facilitate it by transporting excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver and small intestine for excretion . (2011) verified that metabolic syndrome patients have greater triacylglycerol with decreased HDL-c and paraoxonase-1 activity. The recommendation for dietary cholesterol issued by the Institute of Medicine in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy and Macronutrients Report is that dietary cholesterol be “as low as possible” (6). HDL cholesterol content in plasma seems to be crucial in both prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases, since this molecule exerts anti-inflammatory functions as well as exerts positive effects on CRT. Animal studies demonstrate that anthocyanidins act in two different ways: their cardiovascular action is associated with their anti-inflammatory properties and stimulating the RCT (Wang et al., 2012). Metabolism. doi: 10.1007/s12192-010-0192-z, Lira, F. S., Carnevali, L. C. Jr., Zanchi, N. E., Santos, R. V., Lavoie, J. M., and Seelaender, M. (2012).  |  12, 476–482. Effects of orange juice and hesperetin on serum paraoxonase activity and lipid profile in hyperuricemic rats. 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816c091d doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.187998, Rosenson, R. S., Brewer, H. B. Jr., Ansell, B. J., Barter, P., Chapman, M. J., Heinecke, J. W., et al. Curr. (2000). However, there are weak evidences that isolated supplementation of bioactive compounds are capable of increasing HDL-c. Epub 2020 Jun 23. (2014) showed an increased gene expression of SR-B1 and ABCA1 after 8 weeks of aerobic training in ovariectomized rats. (2015). The resulting HDL-c molecule can resume circulation and repeat the RCT process. The positive effects of exercise on receptors related to RCT was also observed in longer experimental protocols. (2016) compared the effects of aerobic and combined training (after equalizing load) on the lipid profile of postmenopausal obese women and concluded that combined training boosted concentrations of HDL-c, but no statistically significant difference was found when compared to aerobic exercise. 10.1038/nrcardio.2010.223 Flavanones have shown decreased activity of PON 1, a major anti-atherosclerotic component of high-density lipoprotein (Kim et al., 2010). 2020 Nov 10;2020:3429541. doi: 10.1155/2020/3429541. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000261. Impact Factor 3.367 | CiteScore 4.3More on impact ›, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Italy, University of Science and Technology of China, China. Keywords:HDL, atherosclerosis, reverse cholesterol transport, macrophage, endothelium, coronary artery disease, inflammation, regression. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.02.011, Wang, D., Xia, M., Yan, X., Li, D., Wang, L., Xu, Y., et al. Kelley, G. A., Kelley, K. S., and Tran, Z. V. (2004). Epub 2006 Nov 1. 2, 153–159, 2013. doi: 10.5812/cardiovascmed.13892, Ghanbari-Niaki, A., Khabazian, B. M., Hossaini-Kakhak, S. A., Rahbarizadeh, F., and Hedayati, M. (2007). doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.109116, Thushara, R. M., Gangadaran, S., Solati, Z., and Moghadasian, M. H. (2016). STUDIES ON FACTORS INFLUENCING HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN FUNCTIONALITY AND REVERSE CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT . doi: 10.1007/s11745-012-3685-y, Vinagre, J. C., Vinagre, C. G., Pozzi, F. S., Slywitch, E., and Maranhão, R. C. (2013). 2011;17(9):861-70. doi: 10.2174/138161211795428858. Endocrinol. It was shown that 1-mg/dL increment in HDL-c was associated with a significant decrease (3.7% in men and 4.7% in women) in cardiovascular disease mortality rates, according to a classical study conducted by The British Regional Heart (Gordon et al., 1989). Nutr. J. Clin. Drug Insight: mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications for agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These changes occur based on many factors, such as total energy consumption, macronutrient composition, vitamins and minerals deficiency, nutritional status, functional foods consumption, among others (Siri-Tarino, 2011; Rondanelli et al., 2016). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500030. Compared to sedentary individuals in subclinical hypothyroidism: plasma kinects of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ans lipid transfer HDL... A randomized controlled trials supplementation increases postprandial HDL cholesterol in men and women much cholesterol can reused. 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