Development time: Writing code in assembly language takes much longer time than in a high level language. ii) Since it is machine dependent therefore programmer Should have the knowledge of the hardware also. Assembler translates mnemonics to specific machine code. With the passage of time different compilers are introduced and have been improved alot. The disadvantages of assembly languages when compared to the high level languages are as follows; 1. Development time: • Developing an applications or writing programs in assembly language takes more time compared to any other languages. 2. The speed and small memory footprint advantages of machine language increasingly are outweighed by the difficulty of writing chip-level instructions in binary code. An assembly language programmer must be an expert who knows all about the logical structure of the computer. This is another low-level but very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s. i) It makes fast and efficient use of the computer. Advantages Disadvantages. It is used for developing operating systems, device drivers, compilers and other programs that requires direct hardware access. Assembly language is a symbolic representation of a processor's native code. It has to work against some deadlines, A specific job has to be completed within specific time! The disadvantages of Assembly Assembly is a very low-level language (the lowest above hand-coding the binary instruction patterns). It means that it is not portable from one machine to another. Using machine code allows the programmer to control precisely what the processor does. Thus programs written for one model of a computer cannot be executed on another model. As its code is more discriptive hence it takes higher development time. Assembly language uses a special program called assembler. Advantages of assembly Language Over Machine Language – Easier to Understand and Use – Assembly language is easier to understand and use because mnemonics are used instead of numeric op-codes and suitable names are used for data. Advantages of Machine Language. Assembly language was developed to overcome some of the many inconveniences of machine language. Its application less reliable and secure. This means it is long and tedious to write initially it is quite bug-prone your bugs can be very difficult to chase your code can be fairly difficult to … Disadvantages of Assembly Language. Disadvantages of assembly language: Some of the disadvantages are shown bellow. Writing assembly […] Generally they do not have secondary storage devices such as CDROM or floppy disk. 2. Reliability and security: It is easy to make errors in assembly code.The assembler is not checking if the calling conventions and register save conventions are obeyed. Gigabytes of RAM and terabytes of available storage have eliminated the requirement for lean, efficient code in modern personal computers. Advantages of assembly language over high-level languages, assembly possess a smaller computation time, and runs faster to produce the desired results. Reliability and security: • Assembly code tends to make errors easily. Disadvantages of Assembly Language – it is machine-dependent. Some disadvantages of assembly language include being hard to read and has no symbolic names for memory locations. ADVANTAGES OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM: Embedded system have a very limited resources. Assembly application is much difficult to maintain. Assembly language is still in use. All codes must also be heavily documented and it is also difficult to debug. 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